• A September 1823 weather observation log from Fort Edwards, a Mississippi River post near the town of Warsaw in present-day Hancock County, Illinois.

  • A Signal Corps weather station atop Pike’s Peak in the Colorado Rockies, at an altitude of 14,147 feet.

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The Weather Bureau

Army contributions to weather analysis began as early as 1814. In order to prevent outbreaks of diseases like yellow fever and malaria, physician and Surgeon General of the United States Army Dr. James Tilton required his staff to keep detailed records in an effort to understand the correlation between disease patterns and weather conditions. Thus, it was the Army Medical Department that formalized the routine collection and cataloging of weather data.